In vitro and ex vivo activities of minocycline and edta against microorganisms embedded in biofilm on catheter surfaces
Cook, Guy S.
Costerton, J. William
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Minocycline-EDTA (M-EDTA) flush solution has been shown to prevent catheter-related infection and colonization in a rabbit model and in hemodialysis patients. We undertook this study in order to determine the activities of M-EDTA against organisms embedded in fresh biofilm (in vitro) and mature biofilm (ex vivo). For the experiment with the in vitro model, a modified Robbin's device (MRD) was used whereby 25 catheter segments were flushed for 18 h with 10(6) CFU of biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans per ml. Subsequently, each of the catheter segments was incubated in one of the following solutions: (i) streptokinase, (ii) heparin, (iii) broth alone, (iv) vancomycin, (v) vancomycin-heparin, (vi) EDTA, (vii) minocycline (high-dose alternating with low-dose), or (viii) M-EDTA (low-dose minocycline alternating with high-dose minocycline were used to study the additive and synergistic activities of M-EDTA). All segments were cultured quantitatively by scrape sonication. For the experiment with the ex vivo model, 54 catheter tip segments removed from patients and colonized with bacterial organisms by roll plate were longitudinally cut into two equal segments and exposed to either saline, heparin, EDTA, or M-EDTA (with high-dose minocycline). Subsequently, all segments were examined by confocal laser electron microscopy. In the in vitro MRD model, M-EDTA (with a low concentration of minocycline) was significantly more effective than any other agent in reducing colonization of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and C. albicans (P < 0.01). M-EDTA (with a high concentration of minocycline) eradicated all staphylococcal and C. albicans organisms embedded in the biofilm. In the ex vivo model, M-EDTA (with a high concentration of minocycline) reduced bacterial colonization more frequently than EDTA or heparin (P < 0.01). We concluded that M-EDTA is highly active in eradicating microorganisms embedded in fresh and mature biofilm adhering to catheter surfaces.
Raad, I., I. Chatzinikolaou, G. Chaiban, H. Hanna, R. Hachem, T. Dvorak, G. Cook and J.W. Costerton, "In vitro and ex vivo activities of minocycline and edta against microorganisms embedded in biofilm on catheter surfaces," Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 47(11):3580-3585 (2003).