Mycofumigation with Muscodor albus : effects on Verticillium wilt and black dot root rot of potato, effects on Glomus intraradices and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and M. albus proliferation in soil
Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess, isolate CZ-620 (MA) is an endophytic fungus that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and non-volatile antimicrobial compounds. The use of these VOCs to inhibit or kill a wide range of microorganisms is termed mycofumigation. This dissertation focuses on parameters of MA mycofumigation including: production and bioactivity of previously un-described water-soluble antimicrobial compounds produced by MA; distribution of antimicrobial compounds from a MA point source in three soil types as measured by effects on Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes; control of V. dahliae and C. coccodes on potato; the ability of MA to colonize soil; and the effects of mycofumigation on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) in vitro and on the colonization of onion roots by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. The bioactivity of water-soluble compounds produced in potato dextrose broth was significantly increased as measured in growth reduction of C. coccodes, V. dahliae, and Rhizoctonia solani. No reduction was observed for Aphanomyces cochlioides and Pythium ultimum. Antimicrobial compounds from a MA colonized barley point source reduced V. dahliae and C. coccodes populations in soils by 60-100% at distances up to 9 cm from the inoculation source depending on soil type. Mortality rate ranging from 70-100% was observed within a 3 cm radius from the inoculation source. In both field and greenhouse trials, MA colonized barley formulation reduced Verticillium wilt and black dot root rot severity and reduced populations of both pathogens in potato tissue as measured by real-time quantitative PCR and serial dilution. Planting directly into mycofumigated soil previously infested with V. dahliae or C. coccodes resulted in equal control of the pathogens when compared to a one-week mycofumigation period prior to planting. After six weeks of incubation MA did not colonize sterile soil further than 0.5 cm away from a MA inoculation point. In vitro experiments showed that most of the tested EMF were inhibited in the presence of MA VOCs, but were able to resume growth when removed from VOCs. Incorporating MA into soil had no negative but supportive effect on onion root colonization by the AM fungus G. intraradices.