A comparison of Saudi and United States faculty use of information and communication technology tools
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The purpose of this descriptive and comparative study was to identify Information and Technology Communication (ICT) tools used by Saudi faculty and United States faculty, and to investigate relationships between their perceptions of ICT applications and ICT use. A questionnaire was sent to 292 Saudi faculty from six Saudi universities and 253 US faculty from five universities. The questionnaire gathered information about the use of and attitudes toward ICT applications. Results found that 65% of the United States faculty taught part or all of a course online as compared to only 26% of Saudi faculty. Saudi faculty used Social Media applications significantly more often than US faculty. Saudi faculty also reported using Google Documents, Photos and Website links significantly more often than US faculty while US faculty used podcasts and text documents significantly more often. Results from a path analysis of the relationships between ICT attitudes and actual ICT use based on Davis' (1993) TAM framework found that for Saudi faculty, system was the only variable significantly related to actual ICT Use. Ease of Use was significantly related to Perceived Value while Perceived Value was significantly related to Attitude Toward ICT Use. For US faculty, again, system was the only variable to have a significant relationship with Actual ICT use. Perceived Value was found to have a significant effect on Attitude Toward Use of ICT tools. The larger relationship between system use and actual ICT tool use for US faculty suggests that they had more access thus more experience using ICT tools than Saudi faculty. In addition, differences in attitudes toward ICT between Saudi and US faculty may be due Saudi faculty's primary use of social media and email applications as compared to US faculty's use a variety of more complex ICT applications including Audio. Overall results from this study suggest that Saudi faculty would benefit from training in the use of a variety of ICT application in addition to social media and email within the context of Learning Management Systems while US faculty would benefit from training in the use of social media applications as an instructional tool.