Bulk electric conductivity response to soil and rock CO2 concentration during controlled CO2 release experiments: Observations & analytic modeling
Apple, Martha E.
Dobeck, Laura M.
Spangler, Lee M.
Cunningham, Alfred B.
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To develop monitoring technologies for geologic CO2 storage, controlled CO2 release experiments at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, Montana, USA, were carried out in 2009-2011. To understand the impact on the electric properties of soil and sediment rock due to possible CO2 leakage, we have developed an analytical model to explain and predict the electric conductivity (EC) for CO2 impacted soil and sedimentary rock. Results from the model were compared with the measurements at the ZERT site during 2009â€“2011 and the CO2-Vadose Project site in France in 2011-2012 after model calibration at each site. The model was calibrated using the saturation (n) and cementation (m) exponents contained in Archie's equation, and a chemistry coefficient (pKc) as tuning parameters that minimized the misfit between observed and modeled soil/rock bulk conductivity data. The calibration resulted in n=3.15, m=2.95, and pKc=4.7 for the ZERT site, which was within the range of values in the literature. All the ZERT data sets had rms errors of 0.0115-0.0724. For the CO2-Vadose site, calibration resulted in n=3.6-9.85 and m=2.5-4.2, pKc=4.80-5.65, and the rms error of 0.0002-0.0003; the cementation exponents were consistent with the literature. These results found that the model predicted the bulk EC reasonably well in soil and rock once the unmeasurable model parameters (n, m, and pKc) were calibrated.
Jewell, Scott, Xiaobing Zhou, Martha E. Apple, Laura M. Dobeck, Lee M. Spangler, and Alfred B. Cunningham. "Bulk electric conductivity response to soil and rock CO2 concentration during controlled CO2 release experiments: Observations & analytic modeling." Geophysics 80, no. 6 (September 2015): e293-e308. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1190/geo2014-0118.1.