Biorational versus conventional insecticides – Comparative field study for managing red spider mite and fruit borer on tomato
Reddy, Gadi V.P.
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Tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae), is an important crop worldwide that is grown both outdoors and under protected structures, for fresh market consumption and for processing. In the Mariana Islands, tomato is grown as an outdoor crop throughout the year. Tomatoes are attacked by a variety of pests, including the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and, in Pacific islands, the red spider mite Tetranychus marianae McGregor. These pests cause scarring, tissue damage, and aberrations in fruit shape or color, making the tomatoes undesirable for fresh market. Also, insect bodies, excretia or parts in fruits reduce their market suitability. Field trials aimed at improving management of these pests were undertaken at two locations in Guam (Yigo and Inarajan), USA in 2012 and 2013, assessing the efficacy of different biorational and conventional insecticides against T. marianae and H. armigera on tomato. At both locations, the mean percentage of mite-infested leaves and the population density of T. marianae were higher in control than in treated plots. An integrated pest management (IPM) program comprising sprays of selective insecticides (Petroleum spray oil, Beauveria bassiana, azadirachtin, and Bacillus thuringiensis), evaluated at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after transplantation of tomato seedlings, significantly reduced the number of T. marianae-infested leaves and the density of T. marianae over plots treated with carbaryl, malathion, six applications of B. bassiana or B. thuringiensis and over both controls at both locations. Similarly, significantly lower fruit damage by H. armigera was recorded in the plots treated with the IPM program than in plots treated with carbaryl, malathion, or the control treatments at both locations. Marketable tomato yields from the plots which received with the IPM program were significantly greater at both locations than were those in the other treatments.
Reddy, G. V. P., and R. H. Miller. 2014. Biorational versus conventional insecticides – Comparative field study for managing red spider mite and fruit borer on tomato. Crop Protection 64: 88–92.