The spatial ecology and mating system of black bears (Urus americanus) in New Mexico
Costello, Cecily Marie
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In summary, our results show that high rates of male dispersal and female philopatry combine to create a spatial genetic structure that generates low rates of inbreeding and little need for kin discrimination among potential mates. Thus, evidence supports the hypothesis that inbreeding avoidance is achieved by means of male-biased dispersal in black bears. Our results also suggest the general pattern of male-biased dispersal is modified by competition for mates or resources.