Coronal Holes and Open Magnetic Flux over Cycles 23 and 24
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As the observational signature of the footprints of solar magnetic field lines open into the heliosphere, coronal holes provide a critical measure of the structure and evolution of these lines. Using a combination of Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SOHO/EIT), Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (STEREO/EUVI A/B) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations spanning 1996â€‰â€“â€‰2015 (nearly two solar cycles), coronal holes are automatically detected and characterized. Coronal hole area distributions show distinct behavior in latitude, defining the domain of polar and low-latitude coronal holes. The northern and southern polar regions show a clear asymmetry, with a lag between hemispheres in the appearance and disappearance of polar coronal holes.
Lowder, Chris, Jiong Qui, and Robert Leamon. "Coronal Holes and Open Magnetic Flux over Cycles 23 and 24." Solar Physics 295, no. 18 (December 2016). DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-1041-8.