Human leukocytes adhere, penetrate, and respond to Staphylococcus aureus biofilms
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Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen responsible for nosocomial and community infections. It readily colonizes indwelling catheters, forming microbiotic communities termed biofilms. S. aureus bacteria in biofilms are protected from killing by antibiotics and the body's immune system. For years, one mechanism behind biofilm resistance to attack from the immune system's sentinel leukocytes has been conceptualized as a deficiency in the ability of the leukocytes to penetrate the biofilm. We demonstrate here that under conditions mimicking physiological shear, leukocytes attach, penetrate, and produce cytokines in response to maturing and fully matured S. aureus biofilm.
Leid JG, Shirtliff ME, Costerton JW, and Stoodley P, "Human leukocytes adhere, penetrate, and respond to Staphylococcus aureus biofilms," Infect & Immun, 70(11): 6339-6345 (2002).