Hindering biofilm formation with zosteric acid
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The antifoulant, zosteric acid, was synthesized using a non-patented process. Zosteric acid at 500 mg l-1 caused a reduction of bacterial (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus) and fungal (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum) coverage by 90% and 57%, respectively. Calculated models allowed its antifouling activity to be predicted at different concentrations. Zosteric acid counteracted the effects of some colonization-promoting factors. Bacterial and fungal wettability was not affected, but the agent increased bacterial motility by 40%. A capillary accumulation test showed that zosteric acid did not act as a chemoeffector for E. coli, but stimulated a chemotactic response. Along with enhanced swimming migration of E. coli in the presence of zosteric acid, staining showed an increased production of flagella. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed an increased transcriptional level of the fliC gene and isolation and quantification of flagellar proteins demonstrated a higher flagellin amount. Biofilm experiments confirmed that zosteric acid caused a significant decrease in biomass (-92%) and thickness (-54%).
Villa F, Albanese D, Giussani B, Stewart PS, Daffonchio D, Cappitelli F, "Hindering biofilm formation with zosteric acid," Biofouling, 2010 Aug 26(6):739-52.