Engineering scale-up of in situ bioremediation processes: a review
Sturman, Paul J.
Stewart, Philip S.
Cunningham, Alfred B.
Bouwer, Edward J.
Wolfram, James H.
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To be useful to field practitioners, advances in bioremediation research must be capable of being scaled up from the laboratory to the field. The phenomena which control the rate at which biodegradation proceeds are typically scale-dependent in nature. Failure to understand and account for scale-dependent variables, such as mass transport limitations, spatial heterogeneities and the presence of competing microorganisms, may inhibit the effectiveness of field-scale bioremediation designs. This paper reviews and evaluates the methods available for characterization of the processes effecting bioremediation at scales ranging from the laboratory to the field. Questions facing the field-scale practitioner of bioremediation are addressed in a manner which highlights the current state of research, the reliability of results and the extent to which laboratory-scale research accurately reflects common field conditions. Where gaps or inadequacies exist in our current knowledge or methods, research needs are identified. This review is intended to complement existing work by providing a framework from which to assess the importance of scale of observation to a particular result or conclusion, thereby providing an integrated approach to the scale-up process.
Sturman, P.J., P.S. Stewart, A.B. Cunningham, E.J. Bouwer and J.H. Wolfram, "Engineering scale-up of in situ bioremediation processes: a review," J. Contaminant Hydrology 19, 171-203 (1995).