Liquid flow in biofilm systems
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A model biofilm consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Kiebsiella pneumoniae was developed to study the relationships between structural heterogeneity and hydrodynamics. Local fluid velocity in the biofilm system was measured by a noninvasive method of particle image velocimetry, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Velocity profiles were measured in conduit and porous medium reactors in the presence and absence of biofilm. Liquid flow was observed within biofilm channels; simultaneous imaging of the biofilm allowed the liquid velocity to be related to the physical structure of the biofilm.
Stoodley P, de Beer D, and Lewandowski Z, "Liquid flow in biofilm systems," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60(8):2711-2716 (1994).