Understanding the importance of biofilm growth in hot tubs
Introduction: Microorganisms attach to surfaces and form biofilms (Figure 5.1). From an historical perspecitve, biofilms first bacame an accepted entity as well as an accepted problem in environmental settings, particularly in industry. The Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University-Bozeman in 1990, funded through the National Science Foundation's Engineering Research Center Program, was established primarily to study environmental biofilms. The fact that biofilms were growing and clogging water pipes and cooling towers was easily accepted because the effects of the biofilms were readily apparent in the reduction and eventual loss of flow through a system.
Goeres D, "Understanding the importance of biofilm growth in hot tubs," In: Daryl S. Paulson, (Editor) Applied Biomedical Microbiology A Biofilms Approach 2009 pp. 133-148 CRC Press