Impact of ferrihydrite and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate on the reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by a gram-positive fermenting bacterium
Inskeep, William P.
Harwood, Jace A.
MetadataShow full item record
Batch studies were conducted to explore differences in the transformation pathways of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) reduction by a Gram-positive fermenting bacterium (Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6) in the presence and absence of ferrihydrite and the electron shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). Strain ES6 was capable of TNT and ferrihydrite reduction with increased reduction rates in the presence of AQDS. Hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes, 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DHANT), and tetranitroazoxytoluenes were the major metabolites observed in ferrihydrite- and AQDS-free systems in the presence of pure cell cultures. Ferrihydrite enhanced the production of amino derivatives because of reactions with microbially produced surface-associated Fe(II). The presence of AQDS in the absence of ferrihydrite promoted the fast initial formation of arylhydroxylamines such as 2,4-DHANT. However, unlike in pure cell systems, these arylhydroxylamines were transformed into several unidentified polar products. When both microbially reduced ferrihydrite and AQDS were present simultaneously, the reduction of TNT was more rapid and complete via pathways that would have been difficult to infer solely from single component studies. This study demonstrates the complexity of TNT degradation patterns in model systems where the interactions among bacteria, Fe minerals, and organic matter have a pronounced effect on the degradation pathway of TNT.
Borch T, Inskeep WP, Harwood JA, Gerlach R, "Impact of ferrihydrite and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate on the reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by a gram-positive fermenting bacterium," Environ Sci Technol, 2005 39(18):7126-7133