Biofilms and microbial fouling
Characklis, William G.
Cooksey, Keith E.
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Microbial cells attach firmly to almost any surface submerged in an aquatic environment. The immobilized cells grow, reproduce, and produce extracellular polymer substances (EPS) that frequently extend from the cell, forming a tangled mass of fibers lending structure to the entire assemblage which shall be termed a biofilm. The term biofilm does not necessarily imply a surface accumulation that is uniform in time and/or space.
Characklis WG, Cooksey KE, "Biofilms and microbial fouling," Advances in Applied Microbiology 1983 29:93-138