Dynamics of Biofilm Processes: Methods
Characklis, William G.
Bryers, James D.
Trulear, Michael Gerald
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Methods available for measuring biofilm accumulation are presented. The methods are conveniently classified as either direct or indirect measurement techniques. The direct techniques involve measurement of biofilm thickness or biofilm mass. The indirect measurement techniques include (1) methods for measuring specific biofilm constituents (e.g. polysaccharide) and (2) methods for determining microbial activity within the biofilm. These methods are discussed in relation to their use in both laboratory studies and in the field for continuous monitoring of biofilm processe
Characklis WG, Bryers JD, Trulear MG, Zelver Z , "Dynamics of Biofilm Processes: Methods," Water Research 1982 16(7):1207-1216