Biofouling: effects and control
Characklis, William G.
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Biofouling refers to the undesirable accumulation of a biotic deposit on a surface. The deposit may contain micro- and macroorganisms. The focus of this paper is microbial fouling biofilms which consist of an organic film composed of microorganisms embedded in a polymer matrix of their own making. The composite of microbial cells and EPS is termed a biofilm. The surface accumulation is often composed of significant quantities of inorganic materials. Complex fouling deposits, like those found in industrial environments, often consist of biofilms in intimate association with inorganic particles (1), crystalline precipitates or scale (2), and/or corrosion products (3). These complex deposits often form more rapidly and are more tightly bound than biofilm alone. These deposits are difficult to characterize at the microscale, i.e. at the cellular level.
Characklis, W. G. “Biofouling: Effects and Control.” Biofouling and Biocorrosion in Industrial Water Systems (1991): 7–27. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-76543-8_2.