Biofilm growth and hydraulic performance
Picologlou, B. F.
Characklis, William G.
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An experimental investigation of the deleterious effect of microbial slime layers on the hydraulic performance of water conduits is presented. The underlying mechanisms that lead to an increase of frictional losses in the conduit are explored and their relative importance is discussed. It is shown that although the slime layer is viscoelastic and filamentous, its effect on frictional resistance can be adequately represented through an increase in rigid equivalent sand roughness of the conduit wall.
Picologlou, B.F., N. Zelver, and W.G. Characklis, "Biofilm Growth and Hydraulic Performance," J. Hydraulics Division ASCE, 106(HY5):733-746 (May 1980).