Dynamics of biofilm processes
Trulear, Michael Gerald
Characklis, William G.
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Biofilms can develop on almost any surface exposed to an aqueous environment. The biofilm systems that result can be used beneficially, as exemplified by fixed-film wastewater treatment processes (for example, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors). In addition, biofilms play a major positive role in stream purification processes. However, biofilms can be quite troublesome in certain engineering systems. In water distribution systems and heat transfer equipment, for example, biofilms can cause substantial energy losses resulting from increased fluid frictional resistance and increased heat transfer resistance. The significance of biofilm development on various processes is summarized.
Trulear, M.G. and W.G. Characklis, "Dynamics of Biofilm Processes," Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), 54(9):1288-1310 (1982).