Nitrification and Autotrophic Denitrification in Calcium Alginate Beads
Characklis, William G.
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Immobilization of nitrifiers and autotrophic denitrifiers (Thiobacillus denitrificans) within calcium alginate gel was demonstrated. Calcium carbonate reagent was immobilized along with bacteria as the stabilizing agent. Protons released as a result of microbial respiration reacted with calcium carbonate producing calcium ions which internally stabilized the calcium alginate gel. The microbially active gel beads were mechanically stable and active for three months in a continuous flow system without addition of calcium.
Lewandowski, Z., R. Bakke, and W.G. Characklis, "Nitrification and Autotrophic Denitrification in Calcium Alginate Beads," Water Science Technology, 19(1-2):175-182 (1987).