Fundamental considerations in biofouling control
Characklis, William G.
Trulear, Michael Gerald
Chang, L. C.
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The term fouling refers to the formatioin of inorganic and/or organic deposits on surfaces. In cooling systems, these deposits form on condenser tube walls increasing fluid frictional resistance, accelerating corrosion and impairing heat transfer Biological fouling, or biofouling, results form the attachment and growth of microbial organisms (microfouling) or macrobial organisms (macrofouling). This paper is directed at microbial fouling.
Characklis, W.G., M.G. Trulear, N. Stathopoulos, and L.C. Chang, Fundamental Considerations in Biofouling Control, CTI Paper No. TP-221A, Cooling Tower Institute, Houston, TX, 1980.