Microbial Films and Energy Losses
Characklis, William G.
Turakhia, Mukesh Harilal
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Fouling microbial film formation can cause significant energy losses as reflected by increased fluid frictional resistance and heat tranfer resistance. Methods to predict and monitor rate of microbial film formation and its effect on energy losses in different environments is essential for efficient design and operation of engineering systems. This paper will discuss measurement methods and their incorporation in predictive models.
Characklis, W.G., N. Zelver, and M. Turakhia, "Microbial Films and Energy Losses," in Costlow and Tipper, (eds.), Marine Biodeterioration, U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, MD, 1984, pp. 75-81.