Biofouling: effects and control
Characklis, William G.
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BiofouIing refers to the undesirable accumulation of a biotic deposit on a surface. The deposit may contain micro- and macroorganisms. The focus of this paper is microbial fouling biofilms which consist of an organic film composed of microorganisms embedded in a polymer matrix of their own making. The composite of microbial celIs and EPS is termed a biofilm. The surface accumulation is often composed of significant quantities of inorganic materials. Complex fouIing deposits, like those found in industrial environments, often consist of biofilms in intimate association with inorganic particles (1), crystalline precipitates or scale (2), and/or corrosion products (3). These complex deposits often form more rapidly and are more tightly bound than biofilm alone. These deposits are difficult to characterize at the microscale, i.e. at the cellular level. Thus while biofilm processes, their kineties, and their stoichiometry can be described in terms of fundamental, intensive variabIes, this paper must generally describe observations in terms of performance parameters (e.g. heat transfer resistance or fluid frictionaI resistance).
Characklis, W.G., "Biofouling: Effects and Control," Biofouling and Biocorrosion in Industrial Water Systems: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Industrial Biofouling and Biocorrosion, International Workshop on Industrial Biofouling and Biocorrosion, Stuttgart, Germany, September 13-14, 1990.