Biofilms, naturally occurring communities of immobilized cells
McLean, R. J. C.
Caldwell, D. E.
Costerton, J. William
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The concept of using immobilized cells (addressed in other chapters of this book) has greatly enhanced the industrial scale production of a number of secondary metabolites by microorganisms. Generally the organisms are confined within a supporting matrix such as carrageenin or agar. In this environment, cellular growth is greatly reduced and the production of secondary metabolites thereby enhanced. Separation of microbial products from the immobilized culture is also facilitated due to the ease with which the relatively large clusters of cells can be removed.
McLean, R.J.C., D.E. Caldwell, and J.W. Costerton, "Biofilms, naturally occurring communities of immobilized cells," In: Immobilized Biosystems: Theory and Practical Applications, I.A. Veliky and R.J.C. McLean (eds.), Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1994, Chapter 5, pp 289-335.