Electron microscopic examination of the extracellular polymeric substances in anaerobic granular biofilms
MacLeod, F. A.
Gulot, S. R.
Costerton, J. William
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Scanning electron microscopy revealed that collapsed extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) surrounded bacteria present in granular sludge. Treatment of granular sludge with whole-cell antiserum and staining with polycationic ferritin demonstrated that bacteria were enveloped by extensive EPS. Antibody stabilization permitted a visualization of the EPS which more closely resembled its natural hydrated state. The EPS was seen to completely fill the intercellular spaces in the microcolonies. Both pure and mixed microcolonies were observed to be enclosed by EPS. The presence of these large amounts of EPS indicates that this extracellular layer is important in maintaining the structural integrity of granular sludge.
MacLeod, F.A., S.R. Guiot, and J.W. Costerton, "Electron microscopic examination of the extracellular polymeric substances in anaerobic granular biofilms," World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 11(5):481-485 (1995).