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dc.contributor.authorAmenabar, Maximiliano J.
dc.contributor.authorBoyd, Eric S.
dc.identifier.citationAmenabar, Maximiliano, and Eric S. Boyd. "Mechanisms of Mineral Substrate Acquisition in a Thermoacidophile." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 84, no. 12 (June 2018). DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00334-18.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe thermoacidophile Acidianus is widely distributed in Yellowstone National Park hot springs that span large gradients in pH (1.60 to 4.84), temperature (42 to 90 degrees C), and mineralogical composition. To characterize the potential role of flexibility in mineral-dependent energy metabolism in contributing to the widespread ecological distribution of this organism, we characterized the spectrum of minerals capable of supporting metabolism and the mechanisms that it uses to access these minerals. The energy metabolism of Acidianus strain DS80 was supported by elemental sulfur (S-o), a variety of iron (hydr)oxides, and arsenic sulfide. Strain DS80 reduced, oxidized, and disproportionated S-o. Cells growing via S-o reduction and disproportionation did not require direct access to the mineral to reduce it, whereas cells growing via S-o oxidation did require direct access, observations that are attributable to the role of H2S produced by S-o reduction/disproportionation in solubilizing and increasing the bioavailability of S-o. Cells growing via iron (hydr) oxide reduction did not require access to the mineral, suggesting that the cells reduce Fe(III) that is being leached by the acidic growth medium. Cells growing via oxidation of arsenic sulfide with Fe(III) did not require access to the mineral to grow. The stoichiometry of reactants to products indicates that cells oxidize soluble As(III) released from oxidation of arsenic sulfide by aqueous Fe(III). Taken together, these observations underscore the importance of feedbacks between abiotic and biotic reactions in influencing the bioavailability of mineral substrates and defining ecological niches capable of supporting microbial metabolism. IMPORTANCE Mineral sources of electron donor and acceptor that support microbial metabolism are abundant in the natural environment. However, the spectrum of minerals capable of supporting a given microbial strain and the mechanisms that are used to access these minerals in support of microbial energy metabolism are often unknown, in particular among thermoacidophiles. Here, we show that the thermoacidophile Acidianus strain DS80 is adapted to use a variety of iron (hydro) oxide minerals, elemental sulfur, and arsenic sulfide to support growth. Cells rely on a complex interplay of abiologically and biologically catalyzed reactions that increase the solubility or bioavailability of minerals, thereby enabling their use in microbial metabolism.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASA (NNX13AI11G); CONICYT Becas-Chile Scholarship program (NNA15BB02A)en_US
dc.rightsThis Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).en_US
dc.titleMechanisms of Mineral Substrate Acquisition in a Thermoacidophileen_US
mus.citation.journaltitleApplied and Environmental Microbiologyen_US
mus.identifier.categoryLife Sciences & Earth Sciencesen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Letters & Scienceen_US
mus.relation.departmentMicrobiology & Immunology.en_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US

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