Inflammatory effects of food available through the food distribution program on Indian reservations (FDPIR; commodities)
Smith, Melanie Sue
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American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) populations experience some of the greatest health disparities and the lowest life expectancy in the United States compared to all other races and ethnicities. The Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) is a primary food supplement program that serves AI/AN communities in the United States. Recent studies have reported that FDPIR monthly food packages do not meet Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). This study measured the effects of two FDPIR diets on inflammation, appetite, and energy intake to better understand potential health outcomes of each FDPIR diet. A within-subjects, randomized, crossover design was used to compare two dietary conditions: 1) FDPIR diet that met Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA); and 2) a typical FDPIR diet. Participants were AI/AN and non-AI/AN men and women (n=13), 18-55 years of age, with a waist circumference of > 94 cm for men and > 80 cm for women. Salivary interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were collected at six separate time points over 24 hours to determine inflammatory response for each condition. Self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS) appetite questionnaires were used to gauge the effect of each condition on specific appetite sensations (hunger, fullness, satiety, desire to eat, and prospective consumption). Daily energy intake was calculated by weighing food in grams before and after each test day. There were no significant differences in inflammatory response and appetite sensations between the two dietary conditions found by RMANOVA (p<0.05). Participants ate 14% more (p<0.01) kilocalories on a typical FDPIR diet compared to FDPIR diet that met DGA. Higher energy intakes during a typical FDPIR diet compared to a FDPIR diet that meets DGA may increase risk for obesity and nutrition-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic inflammatory conditions. This project was approved by Montana State University Institutional Review Board (IRB) and is supported by National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health award number P20GM103474.