Damping and electromechanical energy losses in the piezoelectric polymer PVDF
Vinogradov, A. M.
Schmidt, V. Hugo
Tuthill, G. F.
Bohannan, Gary W.
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Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a piezoelectric polymer that has been used in many applications including microphones, transducers, sensors and actuators. The electromechanical properties of PVDF are commonly defined by the constitutive equations of piezoelectricity. This paper presents experimental evidence that the assumptions underlying the theory of piezoelectricity have certain limitations in terms of representing adequately the electromechanical properties of PVDF. It is shown that PVDF tends to demonstrate time-dependent behavior in the form of viscoelastic creep and dielectric relaxation, and measurable energy losses under cyclic loading conditions. Moreover, the response of PVDF strongly depends on temperature and cyclic frequencies.
A.M. Vinogradov, V.H. Schmidt, G.F. Tuthill, and G.W. Bohannan, “Damping and electromechanical energy losses in the piezoelectric polymer PVDF,” Mechanics of Materials 36, 1007-1016 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2003.04.002