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dc.contributor.advisorChairperson, Graduate Committee: Blake Wiedenheften
dc.contributor.authorvan Erp, Paul Bertram Geerten
dc.contributor.otherGary Bloomer, Royce Wilkinson and Blake Wiedenheft were co-authors of the article, 'The history and market impact of CRISPR RNA-guided nucleases' in the journal 'Current opinion in virology' which is contained within this thesis.en
dc.contributor.otherRyan N. Jackson and Joshua Carter were authors and Sarah M. Golden, Scott Bailey and Blake Wiedenheft were co-authors of the article, 'Mechanism of CRISPR-RNA guided recognition of DNA targets in Escherichia coli' in the journal 'Nucleic acids research' which is contained within this thesis.en
dc.contributor.otherAngela Patterson was an author and Ravi Kant, Luke Berry, Sarah M. Golden, Brittney L. Forsman, Joshua Carter, Ryan N. Jackson, Brian Bothner, and Blake Wiedenheft were co-authors of the article, 'Conformational dynamics of DNA binding and CAS3 recruitment by the CRISPR RNA-guided cascade complex' in the journal 'ACS chemical biology' which is contained within this thesis.en
dc.contributor.otherTanner Wiegand, Royce A. Wilkinson, Laina Hall, Dominick Faith and Blake Wiedenheft were co-authors of the article, 'Protein overexpression reduces specific phage infectivity in prokaryotic argonaute screen' which is contained within this thesis.en
dc.contributor.otherDissertation contains three articles of which Paul Bertram Geert van Erp is not the main author.en
dc.description.abstractProkaryotes are under constant threat from foreign genetic elements such as viruses and plasmids. To defend themselves against these genetic invaders prokaryotes have evolved extensive defense mechanisms. In this thesis I explore two such defense systems: prokaryotic Argonautes and CRISPR-systems. CRISPR-systems acquire short sequences derived from foreign genetic elements and store them in the CRISPR locus. In subsequent rounds of infection these stored sequences are used as guides by Cas proteins to target the invaders. Escherichia coli K-12 contains a type I-E CRISPR system, consisting of two CRISPR loci and eight cas genes. five of these cas genes, together with and 61-nucleotide CRISPR-RNA guide form the RNA-guided surveillance complex Cascade. This complex finds and binds foreign DNA targets that are complementary to its RNA guide. After target binding the helicase/nuclease Cas3 is recruited to the Cascade-DNA complex for destruction of the target. The goal of this research is to understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to target recognition and destruction in the type I-E CRISPR systems. Atomic resolution structures of the proteins involved in these CRISPR systems provide the blueprints of these proteins machines. Structure guided mutational analysis coupled with in vivo and in vitro biochemical experiments are used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this CRISPR system. Together, these results explain the rules of target recognition and Cas3 recruitment. Prokaryotic Argonautes have been hypothesized to defend against mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses through guided nuclease activity. To test this hypothesis, we overexpressed 8 phylogenetically diverse prokaryotic Argonautes proteins in Escherichia coli and challenged them with seven bacteriophages. This resulted in robust protection against phage Lambda and phage P1 by four of the tested Argonautes, while little impact on phage infectivity was observed for the other phages tested. However, control experiments with a nuclease inactive Argonaute mutant and expression of an unrelated control protein showed similar protection against phage Lambda and phage P1. Collectively, our data suggest that protein overexpression in general, rather than Argonaute expression in particular, results in protection against 2 specific phages.en
dc.publisherMontana State University - Bozeman, College of Letters & Scienceen
dc.subject.lcshEscherichia colien
dc.subject.lcshCRISPR (Genetics)en
dc.subject.lcshGene expressionen
dc.titleMechanisms of CRISPR-mediated immunity in Escherichia colien
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2019 by Paul Bertram Geert van Erpen, Graduate Committee: Edward E. Schmidt; Brian Bothner; C. Martin Lawrence; Mark J. Young.en & Immunology.en

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