Variation of Microbiological and Biochemical Profiles of Laowo Dry-Cured Ham, an Indigenous Fermented Food, during Ripening by GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS
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Fermented foods have unique microbiota and metabolomic profiles that can support dietary diversity, digestion, and gut health of consumers. Laowo ham (LWH) is an example of an indigenous fermented food from Southwestern China that has cultural, ecological, economic, and health significance to local communities. We carried out ethnobiological surveys coupled with metagenomic and metabolomic analyses using GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS to elucidate the microbiota and metabolic profiles of LWH samples at different ripening stages. The results from high-throughput sequencing showed a total of 502 bacterial genera in LWH samples with 12 genera of bacteria and 6 genera of fungi identified as dominant groups. This is the first study to our knowledge to report the bacteria of Lentibacillus and Mesorhizobium along with fungi Eremascus and Xerochrysium on a fermented meat product. Findings further revealed that the metabolite profiles among LWH samples were significantly different. In total, 27 and 30 metabolites from GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis, respectively, were annotated as highly discriminative metabolites. Among the differential compounds, the relative contents of most amino acids showed the highest in the LWH sample ripened for two years, while some metabolites with potential therapeutic effects such as levetiracetam were the most abundant in the LWH sample ripened for three years. The correlation analysis indicated that the dominant microbes were closely related to differential metabolites, highlighting the importance of their functional characterization. Findings indicate that the consumption of LWH contributes to microbiological and chemical diversity of human diets as well as suggests efficacy of combining GC-MS and LC-MS to study the metabolites in dry-cured meat products.
Lin, Fengke, Fei Cai, Binsheng Luo, Ronghui Gu, Selena Ahmed, and Chunlin Long. “Variation of Microbiological and Biochemical Profiles of Laowo Dry-Cured Ham, an Indigenous Fermented Food, During Ripening by GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68, no. 33 (July 24, 2020): 8925–8935. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03254.