Occurrence of Multiple Stems in Whitepark Pine
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Depending on the stand, Montana-Wyoming whitebark pines (Pinus albicaulis) may have multiple stems in 8 to 79 percent of the trees. The clumps had one to 11 stems with stand medians between two and three. Multiple stems may arise from several seeds germinating together. from basal branching, or both. Median. stem number and mm• mum stem number per clump decrease with stand age, probably due to both within-clump and between-clump competition. While declines are slight in open woodlands, clumps almost disappear in closed forests. The presence of clumps is correlated with stand density in other conifers as well.
T Weaver and J Jacobs 1990. Occurrence of multiple stems in whitebark pine. p156-159. Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. 1990. Proceedings - Symposium on whitebark pine ecosystems: Ecology and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989 March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-270. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 386 p.