Climates of subalpine pine woodlands
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The climate of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) woodlands is generally cold (average daily maxima and minima in January are -2 and -11 °C, respectively) and snowy 1 to 3 m maximum pack) in winter and warm (July average temperatures are 21 and 4 °C, respectively) and dry (July to September precipitation averages 102 mm and individual months can be rain free) in summer. The tree's lower altitudinal limit probabily is set by the competition of trees better able to compete for necessary resources such as light, water, and nutrients. In contrast its upward extension may be limited zonally by summer frosts and locally by desiccation. While the presence of one stone pine species is apparently a good indicator of an equivalent climate for other stone pine species, its presence does not indicate an identical climate and may therefore not indicate an equivalent climate for nonpine species with different climatic requirements.
T Weaver 1990. Climates of subalpine pine woodlands. p 72-79. Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. 1990. Proceedings - Symposium on whitebark pine ecosystems: Ecology and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989 March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-270. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 386 p.