Pinus albicaulis in Central Montana: Environment, Vegetation and Production
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Nineteen apparently climax, non-krumholz, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests were sampled at 2490-2930 m in the Rocky Mountains of S-Central Montana. The understory of these forests is strongly dominated by Vaccinium scoparium (median cover 40% +). Mature stands (200 + years old), with trees 12 m high, had basal areas of 14-24 m2/ha and had merchantable volumes of 195 m3/ha. Whitebark stands usually occur on soils of igneous origin. The growing season in a typical stand has 3 wet months with over 80 mm of rain and 3 dry months with less than 50 mm of rain; average maximum temperatures in this period rose to 20 C while average minimum temperatures Jell below 0 C.
Weaver, T. & Dale, D., 1974. Pinus albicaulis in Central Montana: Environment, Vegetation and Production. American Midland Naturalist, 92(1): 222-230. doi: 10.2307/2424218.