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dc.contributor.authorKirkland, Catherine M.
dc.contributor.authorKrug, Julia R.
dc.contributor.authorVergeldt, Frank J.
dc.contributor.authorvan den Berg, Lenno
dc.contributor.authorVelders, Aldrik H.
dc.contributor.authorSeymour, Joseph D.
dc.contributor.authorCodd, Sarah L.
dc.contributor.authorVan As, Henk
dc.contributor.authorde Kreuk, Merle K.
dc.date.accessioned2022-05-16T20:04:18Z
dc.date.available2022-05-16T20:04:18Z
dc.date.issued2020-08
dc.identifier.citationKirkland, C. M., Krug, J. R., Vergeldt, F. J., van den Berg, L., Velders, A. H., Seymour, J. D., ... & de Kreuk, M. K. (2020). Characterizing the structure of aerobic granular sludge using ultra-high field magnetic resonance. Water Science and Technology, 82(4), 627-639.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0273-1223
dc.identifier.urihttps://scholarworks.montana.edu/xmlui/handle/1/16787
dc.description.abstractDespite aerobic granular sludge wastewater treatment plants operating around the world, our understanding of internal granule structure and its relation to treatment efficiency remains limited. This can be attributed in part to the drawbacks of time-consuming, labor-intensive, and invasive microscopy protocols which effectively restrict samples sizes and may introduce artefacts. Timedomain nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allows non-invasive measurements which describe internal structural features of opaque, complex materials like biofilms. NMR was used to image aerobic granules collected from five full-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands and United States, as well as laboratory granules and control beads. T1 and T2 relaxation-weighted images reveal heterogeneous structures that include high- and low-density biofilm regions, waterlike voids, and solid-like inclusions. Channels larger than approximately 50 μm and connected to the bulk fluid were not visible. Both cluster and ring-like structures were observed with each granule source having a characteristic structural type. These structures, and their NMR relaxation behavior, were stable over several months of storage. These observations reveal the complex structures within aerobic granules from a range of sources and highlight the need for non-invasive characterization methods like NMR to be applied in the ongoing effort to correlate structure and function.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherIWA Publishingen_US
dc.rightsThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits copying, adaptation and redistribution, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.titleCharacterizing the structure of aerobic granular sludge using ultra-high field magnetic resonanceen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
mus.citation.extentfirstpage627en_US
mus.citation.extentlastpage639en_US
mus.citation.issue4en_US
mus.citation.journaltitleWater Science and Technologyen_US
mus.citation.volume82en_US
mus.identifier.doi10.2166/wst.2020.341en_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Engineeringen_US
mus.relation.departmentCenter for Biofilm Engineering.en_US
mus.relation.departmentCivil Engineering.en_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US
mus.relation.researchgroupCenter for Biofilm Engineering.en_US
mus.data.thumbpage5en_US


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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits copying,
adaptation and redistribution, provided the original work is properly cited
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits copying, adaptation and redistribution, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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