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dc.contributor.authorCoe, Genevieve L.
dc.contributor.authorPinkham, Nicholas V.
dc.contributor.authorCelis, Arianna I.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Christina
dc.contributor.authorDuBois, Jennifer L.
dc.contributor.authorWalk, Seth T.
dc.identifier.citationCoe, G. L., Pinkham, N. V., Celis, A. I., Johnson, C., DuBois, J. L., & Walk, S. T. (2021). Dynamic gut microbiome changes in response to low-iron challenge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 87(3), e02307-20.en_US
dc.description.abstractIron is an essential micronutrient for life. In mammals, dietary iron is primarily absorbed in the small intestine. Currently, the impacts of dietary iron on the taxonomic structure and function of the gut microbiome and reciprocal effects on the animal host are not well understood. Here, we establish a mouse model of low-iron challenge in which intestinal biomarkers and reduced fecal iron reveal iron stress while serum iron and mouse behavioral markers indicate maintenance of iron homeostasis. We show that the diversity of the gut microbiome in conventional C57BL/6 mice changes dramatically during two-weeks on a low-iron diet. We also show the effects of a low-iron diet on microbiome diversity are long-lasting and not easily recovered when iron is returned to the diet. Finally, after optimizing taxon association methods, we show that some bacteria are unable to fully recover after the low-iron challenge and appear to be extirpated from the gut entirely. In particular, OTUs from the Prevotellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae families and Bacteroidales order are highly sensitive to low-iron conditions, while other seemingly insensitive OTUs recover. These results provide new insights into the iron requirements of gut microbiome members and add to the growing understanding of mammalian iron cycling. IMPORTANCE All cells need iron. Both too much iron and too little lead to diseases and unwanted outcomes. Although the impact of dietary iron on human cells and tissues has been well studied, there is currently a lack of understanding about how different levels of iron influence the abundant and diverse members of the human microbiome. This study develops a well-characterized mouse model for studying low-iron levels and identifies key groups of bacteria that are most affected. We found that the microbiome undergoes large changes when iron is removed from the diet but that many individual bacteria are able to rebound when iron levels are changed by to normal. That said, a select few members, referred to as “iron-sensitive” bacteria seem to be lost. This study begins to identify individual members of the mammalian microbiome most affected by changes in dietary iron levels.en_US
dc.publisherAmerican Society for Microbiologyen_US
dc.rights© 2021 Coe et al. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.en_US
dc.titleDynamic gut microbiome changes to low-iron challengeen_US
mus.citation.journaltitleApplied and Environmental Microbiologyen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Agricultureen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Letters & Scienceen_US
mus.relation.departmentChemistry & Biochemistry.en_US
mus.relation.departmentMicrobiology & Cell Biology.en_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US

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© 2021 Coe et al. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2021 Coe et al. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

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