A Novel Irrigant to Eliminate Planktonic Bacteria and Eradicate Biofilm Superstructure With Persistent Effect During Total Hip Arthroplasty
Bashyal, Ravi K.
James, Garth A.
Stulberg, S. David
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Background Numerous studies have examined the use of topical and irrigation-related adjuvants to decrease the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty. Many issues related to their use remain to be investigated. These include cost, antibiotic stewardship, bactericidal effect on planktonic bacteria, host cytotoxicity, necessity to irrigate/dilute potentially cytotoxic agents after their application, and impact on biofilm. Methods Bacterial strains of microorganisms were grown in optimal medium. After the growth phase, the organisms were exposed to the novel irrigation solution (XPerience) or phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 5 minutes before a neutralizing broth was added. The colony-forming units per milliliter and the log reduction in colony-forming units in the treated sample vs the control were then determined. Subsequently, biofilms of microorganisms were grown on hydroxyapatite-coated glass slides. Each slide was then exposed to irrigation solutions for various contact times. Biofilm quantification was performed and the log10 density of each organism was obtained. Results In vitro testing of the irrigant demonstrated 6-log reductions in planktonic bacteria in 5 minutes, and 4-log to 8-log reductions in biofilms. Laboratory tissue testing has demonstrated minimal cytotoxic effects to host tissue allowing for solution to remain in contact with the host without need for subsequent irrigation, creating a barrier to biofilm for up to 5 hours after its application. Conclusion This novel irrigant demonstrates high efficacy against both planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms in laboratory testing. Large series in vivo data are necessary to further establish its efficacy in reducing primary and recurrent surgical site infections.
Bashyal, R. K., Mathew, M., Bowen, E., James, G. A., & Stulberg, S. D. (2022). A Novel Irrigant to Eliminate Planktonic Bacteria and Eradicate Biofilm Superstructure With Persistent Effect During Total Hip Arthroplasty. The Journal of Arthroplasty, 37(7), S647-S652.