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dc.contributor.authorHabouzit, Mélanie
dc.contributor.authorLi, Yuan
dc.contributor.authorSomerville, Rachel S
dc.contributor.authorGenel, Shy
dc.contributor.authorPillepich, Annalisa
dc.contributor.authorVolonteri, Marta
dc.contributor.authorDavé, Romeel
dc.contributor.authorRosas-Guevara, Yetli
dc.contributor.authorMcAlpine, Stuart
dc.contributor.authorPeirani, Sébastien
dc.contributor.authorHernquist, Lars
dc.contributor.authorAnglés-Alcázar, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorReines, Amy
dc.contributor.authorBower, Richard
dc.contributor.authorDubois, Yohan
dc.contributor.authorNelson, Dylan
dc.contributor.authorPichon, Christophe
dc.contributor.authorVogelsberger, Mark
dc.identifier.citationHabouzit, Mélanie, Yuan Li, Rachel S. Somerville, Shy Genel, Annalisa Pillepich, Marta Volonteri, Romeel Davé et al. "Supermassive black holes in cosmological simulations I: M BH− M⋆ relation and black hole mass function." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 503, no. 2 (2021): 1940-1975.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe past decade has seen significant progress in understanding galaxy formation and evolution using large-scale cosmological simulations. While these simulations produce galaxies in overall good agreement with observations, they employ different sub-grid models for galaxies and supermassive black holes (BHs). We investigate the impact of the sub-grid models on the BH mass properties of the Illustris, TNG100, TNG300, Horizon-AGN, EAGLE, and SIMBA simulations, focusing on the MBH − M⋆ relation and the BH mass function. All simulations predict tight MBH − M⋆ relations, and struggle to produce BHs of $M_{\rm BH}\leqslant 10^{7.5}\, \rm M_{\odot }$ in galaxies of $M_{\star }\sim 10^{10.5}\!-\!10^{11.5}\, \rm M_{\odot }$. While the time evolution of the mean MBH − M⋆ relation is mild ($\rm \Delta M_{\rm BH}\leqslant 1\, dex$ for 0 $\leqslant z \leqslant$ 5) for all the simulations, its linearity (shape) and normalization varies from simulation to simulation. The strength of SN feedback has a large impact on the linearity and time evolution for $M_{\star }\leqslant 10^{10.5}\, \rm M_{\odot }$. We find that the low-mass end is a good discriminant of the simulation models, and highlights the need for new observational constraints. At the high-mass end, strong AGN feedback can suppress the time evolution of the relation normalization. Compared with observations of the local Universe, we find an excess of BHs with $M_{\rm BH}\geqslant 10^{9}\, \rm M_{\odot }$ in most of the simulations. The BH mass function is dominated by efficiently accreting BHs ($\log _{10}\, f_{\rm Edd}\geqslant -2$) at high redshifts, and transitions progressively from the high-mass to the low-mass end to be governed by inactive BHs. The transition time and the contribution of active BHs are different among the simulations, and can be used to evaluate models against observations.en_US
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_US
dc.rightscopyright oxford university press 2021en_US
dc.subjectblack holesen_US
dc.titleSupermassive black holes in cosmological simulations I: MBH − M★ relation and black hole mass functionen_US
mus.citation.journaltitleMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Societyen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Letters & Scienceen_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US

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