Effects of cognitive- and motor-dual tasks on postural control regularity following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Monfort, Scott M.
Simon, Janet E.
Miko, Sarah C.
Grooms, Dustin R.
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Background. High injury rates following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) motivate the need to better understand lingering movement deficiencies following return to sport. Athletic competition involves various types of sensory, motor, and cognitive challenges; however, postural control deficiencies during this spectrum of conditions are not well understood following ACLR. Research question. To what extent is postural control altered following ACLR in the presence of sensory, motor, and cognitive challenges, and does postural control correlate with patient-reported symptoms? Methods. Fourteen individuals following ACLR (4 m/10 f, 21.2 ± 2.4 yr, 76.9 ± 19.1 kg, 1.70 ± 0.14 m) and fourteen matched healthy controls (4 m/10 f, 21.2 ± 1.4 yr, 75.4 ± 15.3 kg, 1.70 ± 0.15 m) participated in the study. Participants completed single-leg balance, ACLR limb or matched side for controls, under four conditions: 1) eyes open, 2) eyes closed, 3) visual-cognitive dual task (i.e., reverse digit span), and 4) motor dual task (i.e., catching a ball). Sample entropy (SEn) was calculated for each balance condition to characterize regularity of center of pressure control. Participants also completed patient-reported outcomes to characterize self-reported knee function, symptoms, and fear. A mixed effects model tested for differences in SEn between balance conditions, and Spearman correlations tested for relationships between SEn and patient-reported outcomes. Results. A significant Group-by-Condition interaction was detected (P = 0.043). While the motor dual task and eyes closed balance conditions were associated with the lowest SEn for both groups, only the visual-cognitive dual task condition demonstrated a significant difference between groups, with the ACLR group having lower SEn [95% confidence interval for ΔSEn: (0.03, 0.35)]. Lower KOOS-Sport scores were associated with decreased SEn for the ACLR group (ρ = 0.81, P < 0.001). Significance. These findings are consistent with ACLR individuals using a less automatic approach to postural control compared to controls, particularly when presented with a visual-cognitive challenge. Altered neuromuscular control persists well after ACLR surgery and can be related to patient-reported outcomes.
© This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Monfort, S. M., Simon, J. E., Miko, S. C., & Grooms, D. R. (2022). Effects of cognitive-and motor-dual tasks on postural control regularity following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Gait & Posture, 97, 109-114.