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dc.contributor.authorHunt, David M
dc.contributor.authorShehryar, Omar
dc.identifier.citationDavid M Hunt, Omar Shehryar, An empirical comparison of the Extended Parallel Process Model with the Terror Management Health Model, Health Promotion International, Volume 37, Issue 4, August 2022, daac109,
dc.descriptionThis is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Health Promotion International following peer review. The version of record [An empirical comparison of the Extended Parallel Process Model with the Terror Management Health Model. Health Promotion International 37, 4 (2022)] is available online at:
dc.description.abstractThe Extended Parallel Process Model posits that fear-appeal messages are processed only when message recipients perceive a critical level of threat. The more recent Terror Management Health Model suggests that, in addition to level of perceived threat, the nature of the threat also influences how target audiences process fear appeals. Specifically, fear appeals that utilize the threat of death as a consequence trigger both conscious and nonconscious responses that influence message recipients’ health-related decisions. Accounting for the influence of consciousness of death helps explain maladaptive responses that extant theory has been unable to explain. Results from an experiment indicate that, when the level of perceived fear was the same across participants, the Extended Parallel Process Model successfully predicted persuasive outcomes for fear appeals that utilized the threat of arrest or serious injury as a consequence of noncompliance. However, for fear appeals that utilized the threat of death as a consequence of noncompliance, as predicted by the Terror Management Health Model, ego involvement in the health-related behavior predicted persuasive outcomes more accurately than the dual fear control and danger control processes. These findings suggest that incorporating consciousness of death and ego involvement can avoid conceptual problems with the level-of-fear construct, provide a meaningful way to predict fear-appeal responses across target audiences, and explain maladaptive responses that have eluded the explanations of extant fear-appeal theories.en_US
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_US
dc.rightscopyright Oxford University Press 2022en_US
dc.subjectExtended Parallel Process Modelen_US
dc.subjectTerror Management Health Modelen_US
dc.subjectfear appealsen_US
dc.titleAn empirical comparison of the Extended Parallel Process Model with the Terror Management Health Modelen_US
mus.citation.journaltitleHealth Promotion Internationalen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Businessen_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US

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