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dc.contributor.authorSauer, Karin
dc.contributor.authorStoodley, Paul
dc.contributor.authorGoeres, Darla M.
dc.contributor.authorHall-Stoodley, Luanne
dc.contributor.authorBurmølle, Mette
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Philip S.
dc.contributor.authorBjarnsholt, Thomas
dc.identifier.citationSauer, K., Stoodley, P., Goeres, D.M. et al. The biofilm life cycle: expanding the conceptual model of biofilm formation. Nat Rev Microbiol 20, 608–620 (2022).
dc.descriptionThis version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
dc.description.abstractBacterial biofilms are often defined as communities of surface-attached bacteria and are typically depicted with a classic mushroom-shaped structure characteristic of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, it has become evident that this is not how all biofilms develop, especially in vivo, in clinical and industrial settings, and in the environment, where biofilms often are observed as non-surface-attached aggregates. In this Review, we describe the origin of the current five-step biofilm development model and why it fails to capture many aspects of bacterial biofilm physiology. We aim to present a simplistic developmental model for biofilm formation that is flexible enough to include all the diverse scenarios and microenvironments where biofilms are formed. With this new expanded, inclusive model, we hereby introduce a common platform for developing an understanding of biofilms and anti-biofilm strategies that can be tailored to the microenvironment under investigation.en_US
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLCen_US
dc.rightscopyright Springer Science and Business Media LLC 2022en_US
dc.subjectbiofilm life cycleen_US
dc.subjectconceptual model of biofilmen_US
dc.titleThe biofilm life cycle: expanding the conceptual model of biofilm formationen_US
mus.citation.journaltitleNature Reviews Microbiologyen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Engineeringen_US
mus.relation.departmentCenter for Biofilm Engineering.en_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US

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