Distribution System State Estimation Using Hybrid Traditional and Advanced Measurements for Grid Modernization
Whitaker, Bradley M.
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Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) techniques have been introduced to monitor and control Active Distribution Networks (ADNs). DSSE calculations are commonly performed using both conventional measurements and pseudo-measurements. Conventional measurements are typically asynchronous and have low update rates, thus leading to inaccurate DSSE results for dynamically changing ADNs. Because of this, smart measurement devices, which are synchronous at high frame rates, have recently been introduced to enhance the monitoring and control of ADNs in modern power networks. However, replacing all traditional measurement devices with smart measurements is not feasible over a short time. Thus, an essential part of the grid modernization process is to use both traditional and advanced measurements to improve DSSE results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to hybridize traditional and advanced measurements using an online machine learning model. In this work, we assume that an ADN has been monitored using traditional measurements and the Weighted Least Square (WLS) method to obtain DSSE results, and the voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus are considered as state vectors. After a period of time, a network is modified by the installation of advanced measurement devices, such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), to facilitate ADN monitoring and control with a desired performance. Our work proposes a method for taking advantage of all available measurements to improve DSSE results. First, a machine-learning-based regression model was trained from DSSE results obtained using only the traditional measurements available before the installation of smart measurement devices. After smart measurement devices were added to the network, the model predicted traditional measurements when those measurements were not available to enable synchronization between the traditional and smart sensors, despite their different refresh rates. We show that the regression model had improved performance under the condition that it continued to be updated regularly as more data were collected from the measurement devices. In this way, the training model became robust and improved the DSSE performance, even in the presence of more Distributed Generations (DGs). The results of the proposed method were compared to traditional measurements incorporated into the DSSE calculation using a sample-and-hold technique. We present the DSSE results in terms of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values for all approaches. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated using two case studies in the presence of DGs: one using a modified IEEE 33-bus distribution system that considered loads and DGs based on a Monte Carlo simulation and the other using a modified IEEE 69-bus system that considered actual data for loads and DGs. The DSSE results illustrate that the proposed method is better than the sample-and-hold method.
Radhoush S, Vannoy T, Liyanage K, Whitaker BM, Nehrir H. Distribution System State Estimation Using Hybrid Traditional and Advanced Measurements for Grid Modernization. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(12):6938. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13126938