Effects of the claims-evidence-reasoning writing framework on teaching and learning in eighth grade science
The need for instructing science students on writing evidence based explanations arises from the importance placed on this by the Common Core State Standards for college and career readiness. The Claims-Evidence-Reasoning (C-E-R) writing framework may be a means to this end. Explanations begin with a claim which makes an assertion or a conclusion about a question, problem, or observation. The evidence supports the claim using scientific data. The reasoning part of an explanation is used to justify that the students' evidence supports their claim, explains why the observations or data count as evidence of this claim by providing scientific principles. The framework was used with a variety of lesson types in astronomy and chemistry units. Students reported that the C-E-R framework helped them learn science content. The C-E-R framework also improved students' understanding of the nature of science.