On magnetic activity band overlap, interaction, and the formation of complex solar active regions
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Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal–temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun’s convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.
McIntosh, Scott W., and Robert J. Leamon. On magnetic activity band overlap, interaction, and the formation of complex solar active regions. The Astrophysical Journal 796, no. 1 (November 10, 2014): L19. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/796/1/l19.