Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain
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Objective: We examined the effects of 6 wk of low-dose creatine supplementation on body composition, muscle function, and body creatine retention. Methods: Twenty healthy men and women (21 ± 2 y old) were randomized to receive creatine (0.03 g • kg <sup>-1</sup> • d-1; n=10, 4 women) for 6 wk in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion. Participants were tested on two occasions before supplementation to establish a reliable baseline, and then were retested after supplementation. Testing included body composition, maximal strength (three-repetition maximal concentric knee extension at 180 degrees/s), muscle fatigue (five sets of 30 concentric knee extensions at 180 degrees/s), and plasma creatine concentration. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass, fat-free mass, fat mass, body fat percentage, total body water, or maximal strength in either group from before to after supple-mentation (all P > 0.05). After supplementation, plasma creatine increased significantly in the creatine group (+182%, P = 0.03), with no difference in the placebo group. Compared with baseline values, creatine-supplemented volunteers were more resistant to fatigue during sets 2 (7%), 3 (9%), 4 (9%), and 5 (11%) (all P < 0.05). In placebo-supplemented participants, there was no improvement in fatigue resistance during sets 2 (0%), 3 (1%), 4 (0%), and 5 (1%) (all P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ingesting a low dose (2.3 g/d) of creatine for 6 wk significantly increased plasma creatine concentration and enhanced resistance to fatigue during repeated bouts of high-intensity contractions.
Rawson ES, MJ Stec, SJ Frederickson, and MP Miles. Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain. Nutrition, 27:451-455, 2011.