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dc.contributor.authorCreel, Scott
dc.contributor.authorRotella, Jay J.
dc.date.accessioned2015-02-11T22:44:22Z
dc.date.available2015-02-11T22:44:22Z
dc.date.issued2010-09
dc.identifier.citationCreel, S. & J.J. Rotella. 2010. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS One 5(9):e12918.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttps://scholarworks.montana.edu/xmlui/handle/1/8835
dc.description.abstractFollowing the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995–1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28–50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.en_US
dc.subjectEcologyen_US
dc.titleMeta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus)en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
mus.citation.extentfirstpagee12918en_US
mus.citation.issue9en_US
mus.citation.journaltitlePLoS ONEen_US
mus.citation.volume5en_US
mus.identifier.categoryLife Sciences & Earth Sciencesen_US
mus.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0012918en_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Letters & Scienceen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Letters & Science
mus.relation.departmentEcology.en_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US


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