Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring bread wheat by spring durum wheat cross
Kalous, Jay Robert.
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Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (T. turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, bread and durum wheat are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of genomes that cause sterility when crossed. Previous work allowed identification of a 6X and 4X parent that when crossed resulted in a large number of recombinant progeny at both ploidy levels. In this study, interspecific recombinant inbred line populations at both 4X and 6X ploidy with 88 and 117 individuals, respectively, were developed from a cross between Choteau spring wheat (6X) and Mountrail durum wheat (4X). Lines within each population contained a mixture of alleles from each parent for loci in the A and B genomes. The presence of the D genome in the 6X population resulted in increased yield, tiller number, and seed size. The D genome also resulted in a decrease in stem solidness, lower test weight and fewer seed per spike. Similar results were found with a second RIL population containing 152 lines from 18 additional 6X by 4X crosses. Several additional QTL for agronomic and quality traits were identified in both the 4X and 6X populations. Positive durum alleles increasing kernel weight in hexaploids, on chromosomes 3B and 7A may be useful for introgression by bread wheat breeders.