B cells modulate systemic responses to Pneumocystis lung infection and protect on-demand hematopoiesis via T cell-independent, innate mechanism when type-I-IFN-signaling is absent
Hoyt, T. R.
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HIV infection results in a complex immunodeficiency due to loss of CD4+ T cells, impaired type I interferon (IFN) responses, and B cell dysfunctions causing susceptibility to opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis murina pneumonia and unexplained comorbidities, including bone marrow dysfunctions. Type I IFNs and B cells critically contribute to immunity to Pneumocystis lung infection. We recently also identified B cells as supporters of on-demand hematopoiesis following Pneumocystis infection that would otherwise be hampered due to systemic immune effects initiated in the context of a defective type I IFN system. While studying the role of type I IFNs in immunity to Pneumocystis infection, we discovered that mice lacking both lymphocytes and type I IFN receptor (IFrag−/−) developed progressive bone marrow failure following infection, while lymphocyte-competent type I IFN receptor-deficient mice (IFNAR−/−) showed transient bone marrow depression and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Lymphocyte reconstitution of lymphocyte-deficient IFrag−/− mice pointed to B cells as a key player in bone marrow protection. Here we define how B cells protect on-demand hematopoiesis following Pneumocystis lung infection in our model. We demonstrate that adoptive transfer of B cells into IFrag−/− mice protects early hematopoietic progenitor activity during systemic responses to Pneumocystis infection, thus promoting replenishment of depleted bone marrow cells. This activity is independent of CD4+ T cell help and B cell receptor specificity and does not require B cell migration to bone marrow. Furthermore, we show that B cells protect on-demand hematopoiesis in part by induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10)- and IL-27-mediated mechanisms. Thus, our data demonstrate an important immune modulatory role of B cells during Pneumocystis lung infection that complement the modulatory role of type I IFNs to prevent systemic complications.
Hoyt, Teri R., Erin Dobrinen, Irina Kochetkova, and Nicole Meissner. B cells modulate systemic responses to Pneumocystis lung infection and protect on-demand hematopoiesis via T cell-independent, innate mechanism when type-I-IFN-signaling is absent. Infection and Immunity. December 2014. Pages 743-758. https://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.02639-14