Confirmation and management of glyphosate-resistant Kochia (Kochia scoparia) in Montana
Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.) is one of the most problematic weeds in cropland and non-cropland areas of the US Great Plains. This research confirms the first report on glyphosate-resistant (GR) K. scoparia in Montana, and elucidates the mechanisms of glyphosate and ALS-inhibitor resistance, growth and reproductive fitness of GR K. scoparia, and its management. This research also reports the response of K. scoparia demographics to glyphosate timings in GR sugar beet and evaluate herbicide options for managing volunteer GR canola in GR sugar beet. Based on whole-plant dose-response experiments, four GR K. scoparia accessions (JOP01, GIL01, CHES01, CHES02) had 4.6 to 11-fold levels of resistance to glyphosate compared to a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accession. Confirmed GR K. scoparia accessions (GIL01, JOP01, and CHES01) also exhibited 9.3- to 30-fold resistance to sulfonylurea herbicide (ALS inhibitors). Results from PCR, quantitative PCR, and immunoblotting assays indicated that EPSPS gene amplification (~ 4 to 10 copies) and single point mutation at Pro197 in ALS gene conferred resistance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibitors, respectively. Inbred lines of GR K. scoparia (CHES01 and JOP01) with 2- to 14-fold amplification of the EPSPS gene did not confer any growth- or fecundity-related fitness cost. From a management standpoint, acetochlor + atrazine, S-metolachlor + atrazine + mesotrione, and sulfentrazone applied PRE and paraquat + atrazine, paraquat + linuron, and paraquat + metribuzin applied POST or in postharvest wheat stubble provided effective (> or = 91%) control of K. scoparia. In GR sugar beet, sequential applications of glyphosate (6-leaf fb 10-leaf stage of sugar beet) reduced survival, biomass and seed production of K. scoparia plants in cohort 1 and 2; however, an additional application of glyphosate at the canopy closure stage of sugar beet was needed to prevent seed production from the late-emerging K. scoparia (cohort 3). Ethofumesate (4,200 g ha -1) PRE followed by sequential POST triflusulfuron methyl (17.5 g ha -1) was the most effective treatment for managing volunteer GR canola in GR sugar beet. Overall, this research demonstrates the adaptability of K. scoparia evolving resistance to glyphosate and ALS inhibitors, and suggest the need for adoption of integrated weed management practices.