Occurrence and Characterization of Kochia (Kochia scoparia) Accessions with Resistance to Glyphosate in Montana
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Herbicide-resistant kochia is an increasing concern for growers in the northwestern United States. Four suspected glyphosate-resistant (Gly-R) kochia accessions (referred to as GIL01, JOP01, CHES01, and CHES02) collected in fall 2012 from four different chemical-fallow fields in northern Montana were evaluated. The objectives were to confirm and characterize the level of glyphosate resistance in kochia accessions relative to a glyphosate-susceptible (Gly-S) accession and evaluate the effectiveness of various POST herbicides for Gly-R kochia control. Whole-plant dose–response experiments indicated that the four Gly-R kochia accessions had 7.1- to 11-fold levels of resistance relative to the Gly-S accession on the basis of percent control ratings (I50 values). On the basis of shoot dry weight response (GR50 values), the four Gly-R kochia accessions exhibited resistance index (R/S) ratios ranging from 4.6 to 8.1. In a separate study, the two tested Gly-R accessions (GIL01 and JOP01) showed differential response (control and shoot dry weight reduction) to various POST herbicides 21 d after application (DAA). Paraquat, paraquat þ linuron, carfentrazone þ 2,4-D, saflufenacil alone or with 2,4-D, and bromoxynil þ fluroxypyr effectively controlled (99 to 100%) and reduced shoot dry weight (88 to 92%) of the GIL01 accession, consistent with the Gly-S kochia accession; however, bromoxynilþMCPA and bromoxynilþpyrasulfotole provided 76% control and 83% shoot dry weight reduction of the GIL01 accession and were lower compared with the Gly-S accession. The JOP01 accession exhibited lower control or shoot dry weight reduction to all herbicides tested, except dicamba, diflufenzopyr þ dicamba þ 2,4-D, paraquat þ linuron, and bromoxynil þ pyrasulfotole, compared with the Gly-S or GIL01 population. Furthermore, paraquat þlinuron was the only treatment with 90% control and shoot dry weight reduction of the JOP01 kochia plants. Among all POST herbicides tested, glufosinate was the least effective on kochia. This research confirms the first evolution of Gly-R kochia in Montana. Future research will investigate the mechanism of glyphosate resistance, inheritance, ecological fitness, and alternative strategies for management of Gly-R kochia. Nomenclature: 2,4-D; bromoxynil; carfentrazone; dicamba; diflufenzopyr; fluroxypyr; glufosinate; glyphosate; linuron; MCPA; paraquat; pyrasulfotole; saflufenacil; kochia, Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. Key words: Glyphosate resistance, postemergence herbicides, resistance management.
Kumar, Vipan, Prashant Jha, and Nicholas Reichard. “ Occurrence and Characterization of Kochia ( Kochia Scoparia ) Accessions with Resistance to Glyphosate in Montana .” Weed Technology 28, no. 1 (January 2014): 122–130. doi:10.1614/wt-d-13-00115.1.