The effects of state-level anti-discrimination laws on sex segregation in the workforce
Haines, Jacqueline Elizabeth
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Women's equal pay and sex segregation in the workforce has been a national discussion since the 1900s and is still relevant today. In 1963, the Federal Equal Pay Act was passed addressing this issue. This research examines state-level equal pay legislation that was passed prior to the federal law and how these laws affect sex segregation in the workforce. Using U.S. Census data from 1910 to 1960, sex segregation is analyzed using difference-in-difference regression analysis to determine the effects of state-level legislation on the D-index, concentration ratios, and the probability of being employed in a female-dominated or male-dominated job. Results from state-level analysis do not illustrate these laws having any effect on the D-index or concentration ratios, suggesting there are multiple counteracting effects. On an individual-level, state-level equal pay legislation reduces the likelihood of women being employed in female-dominated jobs. However, this legislation seems to have no effect on the likelihood of males being in a female-dominated job, or a male-dominated job.