Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects
Antwi, Frank B.
Reddy, Gadi V.P.
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The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.
Antwi, Frank B., and Gadi V.P. Reddy. "Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects." Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 40, no. 3 (November 2015): 915-923. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2015.09.023.